The Python module "SimpleHTTPServer" is traditionally a quick and dirty way to test web code without the overhead of installing a full webserver. You can also use it as a quick way to transfer files between systems, if you have Python available:
jswan@ubuntu:~$ python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8080
Serving HTTP on 0.0.0.0 port 8080 ...
This causes Python to make all the files in the current directory available over HTTP on port 8080. From the client system, you can then use a browser, curl, or wget to transfer the file.
No, it's not secure, and yes, it may violate data exfiltration policies (and as an aside, Bro detects this by default). But I've used it fairly often to move files between Windows and Mac or Linux in situations where SCP isn't available and I don't feel like setting up a fileshare.
I've also used this in conjunction with the "time" command to test the effects of latency on various network protocols, and as an improvised way to test WAN optimization software.